Campbell Biology (11th Edition)

Campbell Biology (11th Edition)

作者: Lisa A. Urry

ISBN: 9780134093413 出版时间: 2016-10-29

出版社: Pearson

Lisa A. Urry 0 0 0

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PeterV.MinorskyPeterMinorsky(Unit6)isProfessorofBiologyatMercyCollegeinNewYork,whereheteachesintroductorybiology,evolution,ecology,andbotany.HereceivedhisA.B.inbiologyfromVassarCollegeandhisPh.D.inplantphysiologyfromCornellUniversity.HeisalsothesciencewriterforthejournalPlantPhysiology.AfterapostdoctoralfellowshipattheUniversityofWisconsinatMadison,PetertaughtatKenyonCollege,UnionCollege,WesternConnecticutStateUniversity,andVassarCollege.Hisresearchinterestsconcernhowplantssenseenvironmentalchange.Peterreceivedthe2008AwardforTeachingExcellenceatMercyCollege.
JaneB.ReeceTheheadoftheauthorteamforrecenteditionsofCAMPBELLBIOLOGY,JaneReecewasNeilCampbell’slongtimecollaborator.Earlier,JanetaughtbiologyatMiddlesexCountyCollegeandQueensboroughCommunityCollege.SheholdsanA.B.inbiologyfromHarvardUniversity,anM.S.inmicrobiologyfromRutgersUniversity,andaPh.D.inbacteriologyfromtheUniversityofCalifornia,Berkeley.Jane’sresearchasadoctoralstudentandpostdoctoralfellowfocusedongeneticrecombinationinbacteria.BesidesherworkontheCampbelltextbooksforbiologymajors,shehasbeenanauthorofCampbellBiology:Concepts&Connections,CampbellEssentialBiology,andTheWorldoftheCell.
NeilA.CampbellNeilCampbell(1946–2004)combinedtheinvestigativenatureofaresearchscientistwiththesoulofanexperiencedandcaringteacher.HeearnedhisM.A.inzoologyfromtheUniversityofCalifornia,LosAngeles,andhisPh.D.inplantbiologyfromtheUniversityofCalifornia,Riverside,wherehereceivedtheDistinguishedAlumnusAwardin2001.Neilpublishednumerousresearcharticlesondesertandcoastalplantsandhowthesensitiveplant(Mimosa)andotherlegumesmovetheirleaves.His30yearsofteachingindiverseenvironmentsincludedintroductorybiologycoursesatCornellUniversity,PomonaCollege,andSanBernardinoValleyCollege,wherehereceivedthecollege’sfirstOutstandingProfessorAwardin1986.HewasavisitingscholarintheDepartmentofBotanyandPlantSciencesattheUniversityofCalifornia,Riverside.NeilwastheleadauthorofCampbellBiology:Concepts&Connections,CampbellEssentialBiology,andCAMPBELLBIOLOGY.
LisaA.UrryLisaUrry(Chapter1andUnits1,2,and3)isProfessorofBiologyandChairoftheBiologyDepartmentatMillsCollegeinOakland,California,andaVisitingScholarattheUniversityofCalifornia,Berkeley.AftergraduatingfromTuftsUniversitywithadoublemajorinbiologyandFrench,LisacompletedherPh.D.inmolecularanddevelopmentalbiologyatMassachusettsInstituteofTechnology(MIT)intheMIT/WoodsHoleOceanographicInstitutionJointProgram.Shehaspublishedanumberofresearchpapers,mostofthemfocusedongeneexpressionduringembryonicandlarvaldevelopmentinseaurchins.Lisahastaughtavarietyofcourses,fromintroductorybiologytodevelopmentalbiologyandseniorseminar.Asapartofhermissiontoincreaseunderstandingofevolution,LisaalsoteachesanonmajorscoursecalledEvolutionforFuturePresidentsandisontheTeacherAdvisoryBoardfortheUnderstandingEvolutionwebsitedevelopedbytheUniversityofCaliforniaMuseumofPaleontology.Lisaisalsodeeplycommittedtopromotingopportunitiesforwomenandunderrepresentedminoritiesinscience.
MichaelL.CainMichaelCain(Units4,5,and8)isanecologistandevolutionarybiologistwhoisnowwritingfull-time.MichaelearnedajointdegreeinbiologyandmathatBowdoinCollege,anM.Sc.fromBrownUniversity,andaPh.D.inecologyandevolutionarybiologyfromCornellUniversity.AsafacultymemberatNEW!MexicoStateUniversityandRose-HulmanInstituteofTechnology,hetaughtawiderangeofcourses,includingintroductorybiology,ecology,evolution,botany,andconservationbiology.Michaelistheauthorofdozensofscientificpapersontopicsthatincludeforagingbehaviorininsectsandplants,long-distanceseeddispersal,andspeciationincrickets.Michaelisalsotheleadauthorofanecologytextbook.
StevenA.WassermanSteveWasserman(Unit7)isProfessorofBiologyattheUniversityofCalifornia,SanDiego(UCSD).HeearnedhisA.B.inbiologyfromHarvardUniversityandhisPh.D.inbiologicalsciencesfromMIT.ThroughhisresearchonregulatorypathwaymechanismsinthefruitflyDrosophila,Stevehascontributedtothefieldsofdevelopmentalbiology,reproduction,andimmunity.AsafacultymemberattheUniversityofTexasSouthwesternMedicalCenterandUCSD,hehastaughtgenetics,development,andphysiologytoundergraduate,graduate,andmedicalstudents.Hecurrentlyfocusesonteachingintroductorybiology.Hehasalsoservedastheresearchmentorformorethanadozendoctoralstudentsandmorethan50aspiringscientistsattheundergraduateandhighschoollevels.StevehasbeentherecipientofdistinguishedscholarawardsfromboththeMarkeyCharitableTrustandtheDavidandLucillePackardFoundation.In2007,hereceivedUCSD’sDistinguishedTeachingAwardforundergraduateteaching.
PeterV.MinorskyPeterMinorsky(Unit6)isProfessorofBiologyatMercyCollegeinNewYork,whereheteachesintroductorybiology,evolution,ecology,andbotany.HereceivedhisA.B.inbiologyfromVassarCollegeandhisPh.D.inplantphysiologyfromCornellUniversity.HeisalsothesciencewriterforthejournalPlantPhysiology.AfterapostdoctoralfellowshipattheUniversityofWisconsinatMadison,PetertaughtatKenyonCollege,UnionCollege,WesternConnecticutStateUniversity,andVassarCollege.Hisresearchinterestsconcernhowplantssenseenvironmentalchange.Peterreceivedthe2008AwardforTeachingExcellenceatMercyCollege.
JaneB.ReeceTheheadoftheauthorteamforrecenteditionsofCAMPBELLBIOLOGY,JaneReecewasNeilCampbell’slongtimecollaborator.Earlier,JanetaughtbiologyatMiddlesexCountyCollegeandQueensboroughCommunityCollege.SheholdsanA.B.inbiologyfromHarvardUniversity,anM.S.inmicrobiologyfromRutgersUniversity,andaPh.D.inbacteriologyfromtheUniversityofCalifornia,Berkeley.Jane’sresearchasadoctoralstudentandpostdoctoralfellowfocusedongeneticrecombinationinbacteria.BesidesherworkontheCampbelltextbooksforbiologymajors,shehasbeenanauthorofCampbellBiology:Concepts&Connections,CampbellEssentialBiology,andTheWorldoftheCell.
NeilA.CampbellNeilCampbell(1946–2004)combinedtheinvestigativenatureofaresearchscientistwiththesoulofanexperiencedandcaringteacher.HeearnedhisM.A.inzoologyfromtheUniversityofCalifornia,LosAngeles,andhisPh.D.inplantbiologyfromtheUniversityofCalifornia,Riverside,wherehereceivedtheDistinguishedAlumnusAwardin2001.Neilpublishednumerousresearcharticlesondesertandcoastalplantsandhowthesensitiveplant(Mimosa)andotherlegumesmovetheirleaves.His30yearsofteachingindiverseenvironmentsincludedintroductorybiologycoursesatCornellUniversity,PomonaCollege,andSanBernardinoValleyCollege,wherehereceivedthecollege’sfirstOutstandingProfessorAwardin1986.HewasavisitingscholarintheDepartmentofBotanyandPlantSciencesattheUniversityofCalifornia,Riverside.NeilwastheleadauthorofCampbellBiology:Concepts&Connections,CampbellEssentialBiology,andCAMPBELLBIOLOGY.
目录1Evolution,theThemesofBiology,andScientificInquiry InquiringAboutLife CONCEPT1.1 Thestudyofliferevealscommonthemes CONCEPT1.2 TheCoreTheme:Evolutionaccountsfortheunityanddiversityoflife CONCEPT1.3 Instudyingnature,scientistsmakeobservationsandformandtesthypotheses CONCEPT1.4 Sciencebenefitsfromacooperativeapproachanddiverseviewpoints 
UNIT1THECHEMISTRYOFLIFE 2TheChemicalContextofLife AChemicalConnectiontoBiology CONCEPT2.1 Matterconsistsofchemicalelementsinpureformandincombinationscalledcompounds CONCEPT2.2 Anelement’spropertiesdependonthestructureofitsatoms CONCEPT2.3 Theformationandfunctionofmoleculesdependonchemicalbondingbetweenatoms CONCEPT2.4 Chemicalreactionsmakeandbreakchemicalbonds 3WaterandLife TheMoleculeThatSupportsAllofLife CONCEPT3.1 Polarcovalentbondsinwatermoleculesresultinhydrogenbonding CONCEPT3.2 FouremergentpropertiesofwatercontributetoEarth’ssuitabilityforlife CONCEPT3.3 Acidicandbasicconditionsaffectlivingorganisms 4CarbonandtheMolecularDiversityofLife Carbon:TheBackboneofLife CONCEPT4.1 Organicchemistryisthestudyofcarboncompounds CONCEPT4.2 Carbonatomscanformdiversemoleculesbybondingtofourotheratoms CONCEPT4.3 Afewchemicalgroupsarekeytomolecularfunction 5TheStructureandFunctionofLargeBiologicalMolecules TheMoleculesofLife CONCEPT5.1 Macromoleculesarepolymers,builtfrommonomers CONCEPT5.2 Carbohydratesserveasfuelandbuildingmaterial CONCEPT5.3 Lipidsareadiversegroupofhydrophobicmolecules CONCEPT5.4 Proteinsincludeadiversityofstructures,resultinginawiderangeoffunctions CONCEPT5.5 Nucleicacidsstore,transmit,andhelpexpresshereditaryinformation CONCEPT5.6 Genomicsandproteomicshavetransformedbiologicalinquiryandapplications UNIT2THECELL 6ATouroftheCell TheFundamentalUnitsofLife CONCEPT6.1 Biologistsusemicroscopesandbiochemistrytostudycells CONCEPT6.2 Eukaryoticcellshaveinternalmembranesthatcompartmentalizetheirfunctions CONCEPT6.3 Theeukaryoticcell’sgeneticinstructionsarehousedinthenucleusandcarriedoutbytheribosomes CONCEPT6.4 Theendomembranesystemregulatesproteintrafficandperformsmetabolicfunctions CONCEPT6.5 Mitochondriaandchloroplastschangeenergyfromoneformtoanother CONCEPT6.6 Thecytoskeletonisanetworkoffibersthatorganizesstructuresandactivitiesinthecell CONCEPT6.7 Extracellularcomponentsandconnectionsbetweencellshelpcoordinatecellularactivities CONCEPT6.8Acellisgreaterthanthesumofitsparts7MembraneStructureandFunction LifeattheEdge CONCEPT7.1 Cellularmembranesarefluidmosaicsoflipidsandproteins CONCEPT7.2 Membranestructureresultsinselectivepermeability CONCEPT7.3 Passivetransportisdiffusionofasubstanceacrossamembranewithnoenergyinvestment CONCEPT7.4 Activetransportusesenergytomovesolutesagainsttheirgradients CONCEPT7.5 Bulktransportacrosstheplasmamembraneoccursbyexocytosisandendocytosis 8AnIntroductiontoMetabolismTheEnergyofLife CONCEPT8.1 Anorganism’smetabolismtransformsmatterandenergy,subjecttothelawsofthermodynamics CONCEPT8.2 Thefree-energychangeofareactiontellsuswhetherornotthereactionoccursspontaneously CONCEPT8.3 ATPpowerscellularworkbycouplingexergonicreactionstoendergonicreactions CONCEPT8.4 Enzymesspeedupmetabolicreactionsbyloweringenergybarriers CONCEPT8.5 Regulationofenzymeactivityhelpscontrolmetabolism 9CellularRespirationandFermentation LifeIsWork CONCEPT9.1 Catabolicpathwaysyieldenergybyoxidizingorganicfuels CONCEPT9.2 Glycolysisharvestschemicalenergybyoxidizingglucosetopyruvate CONCEPT9.3 Afterpyruvateisoxidized,thecitricacidcyclecompletestheenergy-yieldingoxidationoforganicmolecules CONCEPT9.4 Duringoxidativephosphorylation,chemiosmosiscoupleselectrontransporttoATPsynthesis CONCEPT9.5 FermentationandanaerobicrespirationenablecellstoproduceATPwithouttheuseofoxygen CONCEPT9.6 Glycolysisandthecitricacidcycleconnecttomanyothermetabolicpathways 10Photosynthesis TheProcessThatFeedstheBiosphere CONCEPT10.1 Photosynthesisconvertslightenergytothechemicalenergyoffood CONCEPT10.2 ThelightreactionsconvertsolarenergytothechemicalenergyofATPandNADPH CONCEPT10.3 TheCalvincycleusesthechemicalenergyofATPandNADPHtoreduceCO2tosugar CONCEPT10.4 Alternativemechanismsofcarbonfixationhaveevolvedinhot,aridclimatesCONCEPT10.5Lifedependsonphotosynthesis 11CellCommunication CellularMessaging CONCEPT11.1 Externalsignalsareconvertedtoresponseswithinthecell CONCEPT11.2 Reception:Asignalingmoleculebindstoareceptorprotein,causingittochangeshape CONCEPT11.3 Transduction:Cascadesofmolecularinteractionsrelaysignalsfromreceptorstotargetmoleculesinthecell CONCEPT11.4 Response:Cellsignalingleadstoregulationoftranscriptionorcytoplasmicactivities CONCEPT11.5 Apoptosisintegratesmultiplecell-signalingpathways 12TheCellCycle TheKeyRolesofCellDivision CONCEPT12.1 Mostcelldivisionresultsingeneticallyidenticaldaughtercells CONCEPT12.2 Themitoticphasealternateswithinterphaseinthecellcycle CONCEPT12.3 Theeukaryoticcellcycleisregulatedbyamolecularcontrolsystem 
UNIT3GENETICS 13MeiosisandSexualLifeCycles VariationsonaTheme CONCEPT13.1 Offspringacquiregenesfromparentsbyinheritingchromosomes CONCEPT13.2 Fertilizationandmeiosisalternateinsexuallifecycles CONCEPT13.3 Meiosisreducesthenumberofchromosomesetsfromdiploidtohaploid CONCEPT13.4 Geneticvariationproducedinsexuallifecyclescontributestoevolution 14MendelandtheGeneIdea DrawingfromtheDeckofGenes CONCEPT14.1 Mendelusedthescientificapproachtoidentifytwolawsofinheritance CONCEPT14.2 ProbabilitylawsgovernMendelianinheritance CONCEPT14.3 InheritancepatternsareoftenmorecomplexthanpredictedbysimpleMendeliangenetics CONCEPT14.4 ManyhumantraitsfollowMendelianpatternsofinheritance 15TheChromosomalBasisofInheritance LocatingGenesAlongChromosomes CONCEPT15.1 MorganshowedthatMendelianinheritancehasitsphysicalbasisinthebehaviorofchromosomes:scientificinquiry CONCEPT15.2 Sex-linkedgenesexhibituniquepatternsofinheritance CONCEPT15.3 Linkedgenestendtobeinheritedtogetherbecausetheyarelocatedneareachotheronthesamechromosome CONCEPT15.4 Alterationsofchromosomenumberorstructurecausesomegeneticdisorders CONCEPT15.5 SomeinheritancepatternsareexceptionstostandardMendelianinheritance 16TheMolecularBasisofInheritance Life’sOperatingInstructions CONCEPT16.1 DNAisthegeneticmaterial CONCEPT16.2 ManyproteinsworktogetherinDNAreplicationandrepair CONCEPT16.3 AchromosomeconsistsofaDNAmoleculepackedtogetherwithproteins 17GeneExpression:FromGenetoProtein TheFlowofGeneticInformation CONCEPT17.1 Genesspecifyproteinsviatranscriptionandtranslation CONCEPT17.2 TranscriptionistheDNA-directedsynthesisofRNA:acloserlook CONCEPT17.3 EukaryoticcellsmodifyRNAaftertranscription CONCEPT17.4 TranslationistheRNA-directedsynthesisofapolypeptide:acloserlook CONCEPT17.5 Mutationsofoneorafewnucleotidescanaffectproteinstructureandfunction 18RegulationofGeneExpression BeautyintheEyeoftheBeholderCONCEPT18.1 Bacteriaoftenrespondtoenvironmentalchangebyregulatingtranscription CONCEPT18.2 Eukaryoticgeneexpressionisregulatedatmanystages CONCEPT18.3 NoncodingRNAsplaymultiplerolesincontrollinggeneexpression CONCEPT18.4 Aprogramofdifferentialgeneexpressionleadstothedifferentcelltypesinamulticellularorganism CONCEPT18.5 Cancerresultsfromgeneticchangesthataffectcellcyclecontrol 19Viruses ABorrowedLife CONCEPT19.1 Avirusconsistsofanucleicacidsurroundedbyaproteincoat CONCEPT19.2 Virusesreplicateonlyinhostcells CONCEPT19.3 Virusesandprionsareformidablepathogensinanimalsandplants 20DNAToolsandBiotechnology TheDNAToolbox CONCEPT20.1 DNAsequencingandDNAcloningarevaluabletoolsforgeneticengineeringandbiologicalinquiry CONCEPT20.2 BiologistsuseDNAtechnologytostudygeneexpressionandfunction CONCEPT20.3 Clonedorganismsandstemcellsareusefulforbasicresearchandotherapplications CONCEPT20.4 ThepracticalapplicationsofDNA-basedbiotechnologyaffectourlivesinmanyways 21GenomesandTheirEvolution ReadingtheLeavesfromtheTreeofLife CONCEPT21.1 TheHumanGenomeProjectfostereddevelopmentoffaster,lessexpensivesequencingtechniques CONCEPT21.2 Scientistsusebioinformaticstoanalyzegenomesandtheirfunctions CONCEPT21.3 Genomesvaryinsize,numberofgenes,andgenedensity CONCEPT21.4 MulticellulareukaryoteshavealotofnoncodingDNAandmanymultigenefamilies CONCEPT21.5 Duplication,rearrangement,andmutationofDNAcontributetogenomeevolution CONCEPT21.6 Comparinggenomesequencesprovidescluestoevolutionanddevelopment 
UNIT4MECHANISMSOFEVOLUTION 22DescentwithModification:ADarwinianViewofLife EndlessFormsMostBeautiful CONCEPT22.1 TheDarwinianrevolutionchallengedtraditionalviewsofayoungEarthinhabitedbyunchangingspeciesCONCEPT22.2 Descentwithmodificationbynaturalselectionexplainstheadaptationsoforganismsandtheunityanddiversityoflife CONCEPT22.3 Evolutionissupportedbyanoverwhelmingamountofscientificevidence 23TheEvolutionofPopulations TheSmallestUnitofEvolution CONCEPT23.1 GeneticvariationmakesevolutionpossibleCONCEPT23.2 TheHardy-Weinbergequationcanbeusedtotestwhetherapopulationisevolving CONCEPT23.3 Naturalselection,geneticdrift,andgeneflowcanalterallelefrequenciesinapopulation CONCEPT23.4 Naturalselectionistheonlymechanismthatconsistentlycausesadaptiveevolution 24TheOriginofSpecies That“MysteryofMysteries” CONCEPT24.1 Thebiologicalspeciesconceptemphasizesreproductiveisolation CONCEPT24.2 Speciationcantakeplacewithorwithoutgeographicseparation CONCEPT24.3 Hybridzonesrevealfactorsthatcausereproductiveisolation CONCEPT24.4 Speciationcanoccurrapidlyorslowlyandcanresultfromchangesinfewormanygenes 25TheHistoryofLifeonEarthASurpriseintheDesert CONCEPT25.1 ConditionsonearlyEarthmadetheoriginoflifepossible CONCEPT25.2 Thefossilrecorddocumentsthehistoryoflife CONCEPT25.3 Keyeventsinlife’shistoryincludetheoriginsofunicellularandmulticellularorganismsandthecolonizationofland CONCEPT25.4 Theriseandfallofgroupsoforganismsreflectdifferencesinspeciationandextinctionrates CONCEPT25.5 Majorchangesinbodyformcanresultfromchangesinthesequencesandregulationofdevelopmentalgenes CONCEPT25.6 Evolutionisnotgoaloriented 
UNIT5THEEVOLUTIONARYHISTORYOFBIOLOGICALDIVERSITY 26PhylogenyandtheTreeofLife InvestigatingtheTreeofLife CONCEPT26.1 Phylogeniesshowevolutionaryrelationships CONCEPT26.2 PhylogeniesareinferredfrommorphologicalandmoleculardataCONCEPT26.3 Sharedcharactersareusedtoconstructphylogenetictrees CONCEPT26.4 Anorganism’sevolutionaryhistoryisdocumentedinitsgenome CONCEPT26.5 Molecularclockshelptrackevolutionarytime CONCEPT26.6 Ourunderstandingofthetreeoflifecontinuestochangebasedonnewdata 27BacteriaandArchaea MastersofAdaptation CONCEPT27.1 Structuralandfunctionaladaptationscontributetoprokaryoticsuccess CONCEPT27.2 Rapidreproduction,mutation,andgeneticrecombinationpromotegeneticdiversityinprokaryotes CONCEPT27.3 Diversenutritionalandmetabolicadaptationshaveevolvedinprokaryotes CONCEPT27.4 Prokaryoteshaveradiatedintoadiversesetoflineages CONCEPT27.5 Prokaryotesplaycrucialrolesinthebiosphere CONCEPT27.6 Prokaryoteshavebothbeneficialandharmfulimpactsonhumans 28Protists LivingSmall CONCEPT28.1 Mosteukaryotesaresingle-celledorganisms CONCEPT28.2 Excavatesincludeprotistswithmodifiedmitochondriaandprotistswithuniqueflagella CONCEPT28.3 SARisahighlydiversegroupofprotistsdefinedbyDNAsimilarities CONCEPT28.4 Redalgaeandgreenalgaearetheclosestrelativesoflandplants CONCEPT28.5 Unikontsincludeprotiststhatarecloselyrelatedtofungiandanimals CONCEPT28.6 Protistsplaykeyrolesinecologicalcommunities 29PlantDiversityI:HowPlantsColonizedLand TheGreeningofEarth CONCEPT29.1 Plantsevolvedfromgreenalgae CONCEPT29.2 Mossesandothernonvascularplantshavelifecyclesdominatedbygametophytes CONCEPT29.3 Fernsandotherseedlessvascularplantswerethefirstplantstogrowtall 30PlantDiversityII:TheEvolutionofSeedPlants TransformingtheWorld CONCEPT30.1 Seedsandpollengrainsarekeyadaptationsforlifeonland CONCEPT30.2 Gymnospermsbear“naked”seeds,typicallyoncones CONCEPT30.3 Thereproductiveadaptationsofangiospermsincludeflowersandfruits CONCEPT30.4 Humanwelfaredependsonseedplants 31Fungi MightyMushrooms CONCEPT31.1 Fungiareheterotrophsthatfeedbyabsorption CONCEPT31.2 Fungiproducesporesthroughsexualorasexuallifecycles CONCEPT31.3 Theancestoroffungiwasanaquatic,single-celled,flagellatedprotist CONCEPT31.4 Fungihaveradiatedintoadiversesetoflineages CONCEPT31.5 Fungiplaykeyrolesinnutrientcycling,ecologicalinteractions,andhumanwelfare 32AnOverviewofAnimalDiversity AKingdomofConsumers CONCEPT32.1 Animalsaremulticellular,heterotrophiceukaryoteswithtissuesthatdevelopfromembryoniclayers CONCEPT32.2 Thehistoryofanimalsspansmorethanhalfabillionyears CONCEPT32.3 Animalscanbecharacterizedby“bodyplans” CONCEPT32.4 Viewsofanimalphylogenycontinuetobeshapedbynewmolecularandmorphologicaldata 33AnIntroductiontoInvertebrates ADragonWithoutaBackbone CONCEPT33.1 Spongesarebasalanimalsthatlacktissues CONCEPT33.2 Cnidariansareanancientphylumofeumetazoans CONCEPT33.3 Lophotrochozoans,acladeidentifiedbymoleculardata,havethewidestrangeofanimalbodyforms CONCEPT33.4 Ecdysozoansarethemostspecies-richanimalgroupCONCEPT33.5 Echinodermsandchordatesaredeuterostomes 34TheOriginandEvolutionofVertebrates HalfaBillionYearsofBackbones CONCEPT34.1 Chordateshaveanotochordandadorsal,hollownervecord CONCEPT34.2 Vertebratesarechordatesthathaveabackbone CONCEPT34.3 Gnathostomesarevertebratesthathavejaws CONCEPT34.4 Tetrapodsaregnathostomesthathavelimbs CONCEPT34.5 Amniotesaretetrapodsthathaveaterrestriallyadaptedegg CONCEPT34.6 Mammalsareamniotesthathavehairandproducemilk CONCEPT34.7 Humansaremammalsthathavealargebrainandbipedallocomotion 
UNIT6PLANTFORMANDFUNCTION 35VascularPlantStructure,Growth,andDevelopment ArePlantsComputers? CONCEPT35.1 Plantshaveahierarchicalorganizationconsistingoforgans,tissues,andcells CONCEPT35.2 Differentmeristemsgeneratenewcellsforprimaryandsecondarygrowth CONCEPT35.3 Primarygrowthlengthensrootsandshoots CONCEPT35.4 Secondarygrowthincreasesthediameterofstemsandrootsinwoodyplants CONCEPT35.5 Growth,morphogenesis,andcelldifferentiationproducetheplantbody 36ResourceAcquisitionandTransportinVascularPlants AWholeLotofShakingGoingOn CONCEPT36.1 Adaptationsforacquiringresourceswerekeystepsintheevolutionofvascularplants CONCEPT36.2 Differentmechanismstransportsubstancesovershortorlongdistances CONCEPT36.3 Transpirationdrivesthetransportofwaterandmineralsfromrootstoshootsviathexylem CONCEPT36.4 Therateoftranspirationisregulatedbystomata CONCEPT36.5 Sugarsaretransportedfromsourcestosinksviathephloem CONCEPT36.6 Thesymplastishighlydynamic 37SoilandPlantNutrition TheCorkscrewCarnivore CONCEPT37.1 Soilcontainsaliving,complexecosystemCONCEPT37.2 PlantrootsabsorbessentialelementsfromthesoilCONCEPT37.3 Plantnutritionofteninvolvesrelationshipswithotherorganisms 38AngiospermReproductionandBiotechnology FlowersofDeceit CONCEPT38.1 Flowers,doublefertilization,andfruitsarekeyfeaturesoftheangiospermlifecycle CONCEPT38.2 Floweringplantsreproducesexually,asexually,orboth CONCEPT38.3 Peoplemodifycropsbybreedingandgeneticengineering 39PlantResponsestoInternalandExternalSignals StimuliandaStationaryLife CONCEPT39.1 Signaltransductionpathwayslinksignalreceptiontoresponse CONCEPT39.2 Planthormoneshelpcoordinategrowth,development,andresponsestostimuli CONCEPT39.3 Responsestolightarecriticalforplantsuccess CONCEPT39.4 PlantsrespondtoawidevarietyofstimuliotherthanlightCONCEPT39.5 Plantsrespondtoattacksbypathogensandherbivores 
UNIT7ANIMALFORMANDFUNCTION 40BasicPrinciplesofAnimalFormandFunction DiverseForms,CommonChallenges CONCEPT40.1 Animalformandfunctionarecorrelatedatalllevelsoforganization CONCEPT40.2 Feedbackcontrolmaintainstheinternalenvironmentinmanyanimals CONCEPT40.3 Homeostaticprocessesforthermoregulationinvolveform,function,andbehavior CONCEPT40.4 Energyrequirementsarerelatedtoanimalsize,activity,andenvironment 41AnimalNutrition TheNeedtoFeedCONCEPT41.1 Ananimal’sdietmustsupplychemicalenergy,organicbuildingblocks,andessentialnutrients CONCEPT41.2 Foodprocessinginvolvesingestion,digestion,absorption,andelimination CONCEPT41.3 Organsspecializedforsequentialstagesoffoodprocessingformthemammaliandigestivesystem CONCEPT41.4 Evolutionaryadaptationsofvertebratedigestivesystemscorrelatewithdiet CONCEPT41.5 Feedbackcircuitsregulatedigestion,energystorage,andappetite 42CirculationandGasExchange TradingPlaces CONCEPT42.1 Circulatorysystemslinkexchangesurfaceswithcellsthroughoutthebody CONCEPT42.2 Coordinatedcyclesofheartcontractiondrivedoublecirculationinmammals CONCEPT42.3 Patternsofbloodpressureandflowreflectthestructureandarrangementofbloodvessels CONCEPT42.4 Bloodcomponentsfunctioninexchange,transport,anddefense CONCEPT42.5 Gasexchangeoccursacrossspecializedrespiratorysurfaces CONCEPT42.6 Breathingventilatesthelungs CONCEPT42.7 Adaptationsforgasexchangeincludepigmentsthatbindandtransportgases 43TheImmuneSystemRecognitionandResponse CONCEPT43.1 Ininnateimmunity,recognitionandresponserelyontraitscommontogroupsofpathogens CONCEPT43.2 Inadaptiveimmunity,receptorsprovidepathogen-specificrecognition CONCEPT43.3 Adaptiveimmunitydefendsagainstinfectionofbodyfluidsandbodycells CONCEPT43.4 Disruptionsinimmunesystemfunctioncanelicitorexacerbatedisease 44OsmoregulationandExcretionABalancingAct CONCEPT44.1 Osmoregulationbalancestheuptakeandlossofwaterandsolutes CONCEPT44.2 Ananimal’snitrogenouswastesreflectitsphylogenyandhabitat CONCEPT44.3 Diverseexcretorysystemsarevariationsonatubulartheme CONCEPT44.4 Thenephronisorganizedforstepwiseprocessingofbloodfiltrate CONCEPT44.5 Hormonalcircuitslinkkidneyfunction,waterbalance,andbloodpressure 45HormonesandtheEndocrineSystem TheBody’sLong-DistanceRegulators CONCEPT45.1 Hormonesandothersignalingmoleculesbindtotargetreceptors,triggeringspecificresponsepathways CONCEPT45.2 Feedbackregulationandcoordinationwiththenervoussystemarecommoninhormonepathways CONCEPT45.3 Endocrineglandsrespondtodiversestimuliinregulatinghomeostasis,development,andbehavior 46AnimalReproduction LetMeCounttheWaysCONCEPT46.1 Bothasexualandsexualreproductionoccurintheanimalkingdom CONCEPT46.2 Fertilizationdependsonmechanismsthatbringtogetherspermandeggsofthesamespecies CONCEPT46.3 Reproductiveorgansproduceandtransportgametes CONCEPT46.4 Theinterplayoftropicandsexhormonesregulatesmammalianreproduction CONCEPT46.5 Inplacentalmammals,anembryodevelopsfullywithinthemother’suterus 47AnimalDevelopment ABody-BuildingPlan CONCEPT47.1 Fertilizationandcleavageinitiateembryonicdevelopment CONCEPT47.2 Morphogenesisinanimalsinvolvesspecificchangesincellshape,position,andsurvival CONCEPT47.3 Cytoplasmicdeterminantsandinductivesignalsregulatecellfate48Neurons,Synapses,andSignaling LinesofCommunication CONCEPT48.1 Neuronstructureandorganizationreflectfunctionininformationtransfer CONCEPT48.2 Ionpumpsandionchannelsestablishtherestingpotentialofaneuron CONCEPT48.3 Actionpotentialsarethesignalsconductedbyaxons CONCEPT48.4 Neuronscommunicatewithothercellsatsynapses 49NervousSystems CommandandControlCenter CONCEPT49.1 Nervoussystemsconsistofcircuitsofneuronsandsupportingcells CONCEPT49.2 Thevertebratebrainisregionallyspecialized CONCEPT49.3 Thecerebralcortexcontrolsvoluntarymovementandcognitivefunctions CONCEPT49.4 Changesinsynapticconnectionsunderliememoryandlearning CONCEPT49.5 Manynervoussystemdisorderscanbeexplainedinmolecularterms 50SensoryandMotorMechanisms SenseandSensibility CONCEPT50.1 Sensoryreceptorstransducestimulusenergyandtransmitsignalstothecentralnervoussystem CONCEPT50.2 Inhearingandequilibrium,mechanoreceptorsdetectmovingfluidorsettlingparticles CONCEPT50.3 Thediversevisualreceptorsofanimalsdependonlight-absorbingpigmentsCONCEPT50.4 Thesensesoftasteandsmellrelyonsimilarsetsofsensoryreceptors CONCEPT50.5 ThephysicalinteractionofproteinfilamentsisrequiredformusclefunctionCONCEPT50.6 Skeletalsystemstransformmusclecontractionintolocomotion 51AnimalBehavior TheHowandWhyofAnimalActivity CONCEPT51.1 Discretesensoryinputscanstimulatebothsimpleandcomplexbehaviors CONCEPT51.2 Learningestablishesspecificlinksbetweenexperienceandbehavior CONCEPT51.3 Selectionforindividualsurvivalandreproductivesuccesscanexplaindiversebehaviors CONCEPT51.4 Geneticanalysesandtheconceptofinclusivefitnessprovideabasisforstudyingtheevolutionofbehavior 
UNIT8ECOLOGY 52AnIntroductiontoEcologyandtheBiosphere DiscoveringEcology CONCEPT52.1 Earth’sclimatevariesbylatitudeandseasonandischangingrapidly CONCEPT52.2 Thedistributionofterrestrialbiomesiscontrolledbyclimateanddisturbance CONCEPT52.3 AquaticbiomesarediverseanddynamicsystemsthatcovermostofEarthCONCEPT52.4 Interactionsbetweenorganismsandtheenvironmentlimitthedistributionofspecies CONCEPT52.5Ecologicalchangeandevolutionaffectoneanotheroverlongandshortperiodsoftime53PopulationEcologyTurtleTracks CONCEPT53.1 Bioticandabioticfactorsaffectpopulationdensity,dispersion,anddemographics CONCEPT53.2 Theexponentialmodeldescribespopulationgrowthinanidealized,unlimitedenvironment CONCEPT53.3 Thelogisticmodeldescribeshowapopulationgrowsmoreslowlyasitnearsitscarryingcapacity CONCEPT53.4 Lifehistorytraitsareproductsofnaturalselection CONCEPT53.5 Density-dependentfactorsregulatepopulationgrowthCONCEPT53.6 Thehumanpopulationisnolongergrowingexponentiallybutisstillincreasingrapidly 54CommunityEcology CommunitiesinMotion CONCEPT54.1 Communityinteractionsareclassifiedbywhethertheyhelp,harm,orhavenoeffectonthespeciesinvolved CONCEPT54.2 Diversityandtrophicstructurecharacterizebiologicalcommunities CONCEPT54.3 Disturbanceinfluencesspeciesdiversityandcomposition CONCEPT54.4 Biogeographicfactorsaffectcommunitydiversity CONCEPT54.5 Pathogensaltercommunitystructurelocallyandglobally 55EcosystemsandRestorationEcology TransformedtoTundra CONCEPT55.1 Physicallawsgovernenergyflowandchemicalcyclinginecosystems CONCEPT55.2 Energyandotherlimitingfactorscontrolprimaryproductioninecosystems CONCEPT55.3 Energytransferbetweentrophiclevelsistypicallyonly10%efficient CONCEPT55.4 Biologicalandgeochemicalprocessescyclenutrientsandwaterinecosystems CONCEPT55.5 Restorationecologistsreturndegradedecosystemstoamorenaturalstate 56ConservationBiologyandGlobalChangePsychedelicTreasure CONCEPT56.1 HumanactivitiesthreatenEarth’sbiodiversity CONCEPT56.2 Populationconservationfocusesonpopulationsize,geneticdiversity,andcriticalhabitat CONCEPT56.3 Landscapeandregionalconservationhelpsustainbiodiversity CONCEPT56.4 EarthischangingrapidlyasaresultofhumanactionsCONCEPT56.5 Sustainabledevelopmentcanimprovehumanliveswhileconservingbiodiversity 
MichaelL.CainMichaelCain(Units4,5,and8)isanecologistandevolutionarybiologistwhoisnowwritingfull-time.MichaelearnedajointdegreeinbiologyandmathatBowdoinCollege,anM.Sc.fromBrownUniversity,andaPh.D.inecologyandevolutionarybiologyfromCornellUniversity.AsafacultymemberatNEW!MexicoStateUniversityandRose-HulmanInstituteofTechnology,hetaughtawiderangeofcourses,includingintroductorybiology,ecology,evolution,botany,andconservationbiology.Michaelistheauthorofdozensofscientificpapersontopicsthatincludeforagingbehaviorininsectsandplants,long-distanceseeddispersal,andspeciationincrickets.Michaelisalsotheleadauthorofanecologytextbook.
StevenA.WassermanSteveWasserman(Unit7)isProfessorofBiologyattheUniversityofCalifornia,SanDiego(UCSD).HeearnedhisA.B.inbiologyfromHarvardUniversityandhisPh.D.inbiologicalsciencesfromMIT.ThroughhisresearchonregulatorypathwaymechanismsinthefruitflyDrosophila,Stevehascontributedtothefieldsofdevelopmentalbiology,reproduction,andimmunity.AsafacultymemberattheUniversityofTexasSouthwesternMedicalCenterandUCSD,hehastaughtgenetics,development,andphysiologytoundergraduate,graduate,andmedicalstudents.Hecurrentlyfocusesonteachingintroductorybiology.Hehasalsoservedastheresearchmentorformorethanadozendoctoralstudentsandmorethan50aspiringscientistsattheundergraduateandhighschoollevels.StevehasbeentherecipientofdistinguishedscholarawardsfromboththeMarkeyCharitableTrustandtheDavidandLucillePackardFoundation.In2007,hereceivedUCSD’sDistinguishedTeachingAwardforundergraduateteaching.
作者简介LisaA.UrryLisaUrry(Chapter1andUnits1,2,and3)isProfessorofBiologyandChairoftheBiologyDepartmentatMillsCollegeinOakland,California,andaVisitingScholarattheUniversityofCalifornia,Berkeley.AftergraduatingfromTuftsUniversitywithadoublemajorinbiologyandFrench,LisacompletedherPh.D.inmolecularanddevelopmentalbiologyatMassachusettsInstituteofTechnology(MIT)intheMIT/WoodsHoleOceanographicInstitutionJointProgram.Shehaspublishedanumberofresearchpapers,mostofthemfocusedongeneexpressionduringembryonicandlarvaldevelopmentinseaurchins.Lisahastaughtavarietyofcourses,fromintroductorybiologytodevelopmentalbiologyandseniorseminar.Asapartofhermissiontoincreaseunderstandingofevolution,LisaalsoteachesanonmajorscoursecalledEvolutionforFuturePresidentsandisontheTeacherAdvisoryBoardfortheUnderstandingEvolutionwebsitedevelopedbytheUniversityofCaliforniaMuseumofPaleontology.Lisaisalsodeeplycommittedtopromotingopportunitiesforwomenandunderrepresentedminoritiesinscience.

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